I choose Energy source of Human This is my topic.
You have to put work cited first and after that you have to write 150 words summary wath two qoutstions market from the essay and after that you have to write your opinion for gust one or two lines. After that you have to write Two questions about that summery no yes or no. You can choose two questions of How, What,Where, Why, When. this is my order. No quesation no and yes. I do not want that. You have to read this essay I will put to you because you have to read this resoerc. You have to put two of Qoutation mark. said “……………………………………..” with page number , and second he said, “…………………………………” with his last name and page number.
No quesation no and yes. I do not want that.
I took these information from my college website and you have to read it.
English 2 Annotation 3 Energy Sources
Mohanty, Manoranjan. “New Renewable Energy Sources, Green Energy Development and Climate Change.” Management of Environmental Quality 23.3 (2012): 264-74. ProQuest. Web. 29 Sep. 2014.
New renewable energy sources,
green energy development and
Implications to Pacific Island countries
Faculty of Business and Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to examine the renewable energy resources for enhancing a green
energy development in the face of energy crisis and climate change, and to explore the prospects for
“new” renewable energy sources and the green energy initiatives taken in the Pacific Island countries
Design/methodology/approach – The data were collated from a wide variety of sources including
policy documents, road maps, reports, research articles on renewable and green energy sources.
The methodology adopted was primarily a qualitative one based on a “content analysis”.
Findings – The findings reveal that increasing emphases have been given recently to “new”
renewable and green energy sources in the Pacific Island countries as mitigation and adaptation
strategies to fuel crisis and climate change. PICs have taken a wide range of green energy initiatives
including “biomass”, solar, wind and other non-traditional renewable energy sources and bio-fuels
development. Prospects for coconut, copra and palm-oil based bio-fuels do exist in many PICs.
Opportunities for ethanol bio-fuels also exist especially in Fiji.
Practical implications – Renewable and green energy sources are of practical implications to PICs.
There is, however, a greater need for framing sound energy policies by the PICs.
Originality/value – The author has brought out clear linkages between climate change and green
energy development and analyzed the importance of new renewable energy sources, especially in PICs.
The paper has higher policy relevance and it is of great value in the context of sustainable energy
development in PICs.
Keywords Climate change, Green energy, Green growth, Bio-fuel, Renewable energy,
Global warming, Sustainable development, Pacific Island countries
Paper type Research paper
The synergy between environment and economy are more pronounced now than ever
before. Energy, environment and climate change are closely intertwined. A holistic and
multi-disciplinary approach is, however, needed to understand the complex linkages
between them. Global fuel-food crises and overdependence on fossil fuels especially on
oil on the one hand, and green house gases (GHGs), global warming and climate
change on the other, are the critical energy sector challenges. These have been
aggravated by an unprecedented demand for energy due to growing population. The
need for energy efficiency (EE) solutions through renewable energy (RE) sources is
now much emphasised. The “green growth” and “green economy” are likely to be
achieved through green energy initiatives and green energy technologies development.
These aim at increasing EE and achieving a low-carbon development, which in turn,
can achieve an eco-efficiency. The “brown” vs “green” energy development debate
draws much of the world attention today in the face of climate change. A “green
energy” development with a “low carbon” and less harmful by-products has emerged
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
Received 30 March 2011
Revised 19 November 2011
Accepted 6 December 2011
Management of Environmental
Quality: An International Journal
Vol. 23 No. 3, 2012
r Emerald Group Publishing Limited
as a strategy for an alternative energy development and climate change mitigation.
There have been persistent efforts in increasing EE primarily through “new”
renewable technologies. The prime aim is to enhance the eco-efficiency of economy and
to achieve a “low-carbon” development and environmental sustainability. There has
been gradual shifting of global emphasis from “old” to “new” renewable energy (ORE
to NRE) sources. More focus now is on the use of “biomass”, “bio-fuels”, solar, wind and
other non-traditional RE sources. Development of renewable and green energy
technologies are the pathways in achieving sustainable energy development and thus a
“green” or “smart” economic growth.
The threat of climate change is being aggravated by the intertwined fuel – food
global crises and resulting in more vulnerability especially to the Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) and particularly, the Pacific Islands countries (PICs). These
countries produce almost negligible GHGs but are the most vulnerable to extreme
climate change events and sea-level rise. The low-lying atoll states such as Kiribati,
Marshall Islands, Tokelau and Tuvalu are the immediate victims of such events. The
SIDSs need to become more EE and self-reliant and this can be achieved through RE
or green energy development. There are some instances of successful green energy
development in SIDS, for example, the “green” Coco Palm Resort on Maldives,
efficiency initiatives in Timor, Cuba and Guadeloupe, and a 100 per cent RE run
Spanish Canary Island (Lambrides, 2008). The two SIDS namely, the Maldives and
St Kitts and Nevis are competing with one another to become world’s first carbon
neutral nation (Topping, 2009).
The PICs are heavily dependent on imported oil and the by-products, and
significantly affected by the global fuel crisis. The importation of mineral fuel in Fiji,
for example, was F$1.2 billion in 2008 accounting for 40 per cent of the total import
value (APCTT-UNESCAP, 2010). The power utilities in PICs are not only small but
with a high rate of transmission loss. Some Pacific utilities lose up to 20 per cent or
more of their production due to line losses in the power utility sector (Roper, 2007). The
PICs have vast potential for NRE sources and green energy development, which will
not only reduce oil dependency but also help lowering carbon emissions and improve
the environmental quality.
The questions arise: How to reduce the over dependence on oil? How to achieve
greater EE and a low-carbon development? What are the challenges and prospects
exist for NRE sources in PICs? What are the green energy initiatives undertaken so far
The paper aims at examining the RE resources for enhancing green energy
development in the face of climate change and exploring the prospects of NRE sources,
and green energy initiatives and green energy development in the PICs.
2. Energy – development – global warming and climate change linkages
Energy, development and climate change are closely linked. A multi-dimensional,
dynamic and complex relationship exists between them. Development – climate
change relationship is linked through energy consumption and waste generation.
Generally speaking, higher the level of development, greater is the energy consumption
(fossil-fuel burning) and in turn, higher is the GHG emissions leading to global
warming and climate change.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has already established that
climate change is real, universal and largely a human – induced phenomenon. Climate
change has been caused by GHG emissions from energy intensive human economic
activities based on fossil-fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) burning. The annual
global CO2 emission was 28 million metric tonnes in 2006 (Wikipedia, 2011b). Nearly
35 countries produce 90 per cent of world’s CO2 emissions globally, the largest
share is by the developed countries especially the USA (20 per cent), European Union
(EU) (15 per cent) and Russia (5 per cent) (Wikipedia, 2011b). About 15 per cent of the
world population (rich countries) account for 45 per cent of CO2 emissions (UNDP,
World’s average temperature has increased by approximately 0.61C and two-thirds
of warming occurred since 1975 (UNDP, 2008). Eleven of 12 warmest years since 1850
occurred between 1995 and 2006 (UNDP, 2008). By the end of the present century it
could rise 2 or 31C or even as much as 61C (UNESCAP, 2009).
World energy consumption is the main determinant of global warming and
consequent climate change and sea-level rise. The world energy consumption patterns
show that fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) accounts for about 87 per cent of global
energy consumption (Wikipedia, 2011b). Oil accounts for about 35 per cent followed by
coal 28 per cent, natural gas 23.5 per cent, hydro-electricity 6 per cent, nuclear 5.8 per
cent and others 0.9 per cent (Wikipedia, 2011b). The world energy consumption per
capita was 1,819 kg of oil equivalent in 2007 (World Bank, 2009). The economic growth
processes especially in PICs are heavily dependent on oil consumption. The main
concerns are to reduce the oil dependence and develop alternative energy sources.
Energy services play a critical role in supporting economic growth and enhancing the
quality of people’s lives. Around 1.6 billion people in the world lack access to such
services (UNDP, 2008). Nearly 40 per cent of world’s population used biomass cook
stoves (REN21, 2010). Poverty is closely linked to low-efficiency “energy carriers” such
as fire wood, dung, charcoal, kerosene, crop waste and other solid biomass products
that diminish the environmental quality (Mohanty, 2005).
3. Green energy and green growth strategies
There has been a shift in emphasis from a carbon emission reduction strategy to a lowcarbon
development called “green development” that aims to achieve a green growth
and sustainable development. Green energy is the main tool for achieving an efficient
energy. “Green energy” development has emerged as an alternative energy
development strategy and a strategy for climate change mitigation. Green energy is
argued to be non-polluting and more environmental-friendly. Development of RE
sources and green energy technologies are now the pathways in achieving sustainable
“green energy” development. These are seen as “most cost-effective mitigation options”
(UNESCAP, 2009). “Green economy” and “green growth” that aim at a low-carbon or
low-fossil-fuel development will increase EE and in turn, the eco-efficiency of economic
growth. The ecological efficiency can thus be achieved through green energy
development and their linkages are as follows:
Green energy-EE-economic efficiency-ecological efficiency
3.1 Hard vs soft energy
The debate between “hard energy” and “soft energy” path continues in energy –
development discourse. The traditional approach of a hard energy is based on the
assumption that the mass energy use will lead to better development. This involves
burning of inefficient fossil fuels, nuclear power and other conventional energy
sources. The soft energy path on the other hand is based on the assumption that energy
is a means to social ends and it involves efficient use of energy sources and reliance on
“soft energy technologies” such as solar, wind, geothermal and bio-fuels (Wikipedia,
2011a). The renewables and non-conventional energy sources are more efficient and
“soft energy” sources that have potential for achieving “green growth”. Solar energy
technologies such as solar water heater and other residential solar energy technologies
are the soft energy or green energy technologies.
4. RE sources
The RE is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly thus
perennial sources of energy is now growing in its importance worldwide. The
main advantages of RE sources are that they provide energy security, they are EE,
non-polluting, inexpensive, locally available and more environmental-friendly and also
have potential to reduce oil dependence and help achieving green growth. RE and EE
thus go hand in hand and they are the twin pillars of sustainable energy development.
The renewable/green energy technologies include three generation: first, second
and third. The first-generation technologies include, for example, hydropower,
geothermal and biomass combustion. Second-generation technologies are, e.g. solar
heating and cooling, solar photo-voltaics, wind power and third-generation
technologies are biomass gasification, bio-refinery, geothermal and ocean/marine
energy (tidal, waves, ocean thermal differences) (Wikipedia, 2011a).
In 2008, RE accounted for about 19 per cent of the world’s energy consumption
(Wikipedia, 2011a). An increasing number of countries are shifting their energy
policies in favour of RE. By the early 2010, there were more than 100 countries which
enacted some type of policy target and/or promotion policy related to RE, an increase
over 80 per cent in number from 55 in the early 2005 (REN21, 2010).
4.1 NRE sources
The ORE sources include the non-conventional energy sources such as solar, wind,
geothermal, nuclear and tidal waves. On the other hand, the NRE sources focus more
on small-hydro projects, solar, biomass and bio-fuels. Biomass, derived from organic
materials, is one of the most important sources of soft and NRE. Nearly 1.7 billion
people rely on traditional biomass in the developing world (UNDP, 2008). Tropical
rainforest and open sea are the chief sources of biomass, accounting for about 31 and
28 per cent of the total global biomass production, respectively (Wikipedia, 2011a).
4.1.1 Bio-fuels. Bio-fuels are the energy derived from biomass and organic wastes.
These are NRE sources. The global production of bio-fuels has increased by 55 per cent
between 2007 and 2009 (Table I).
Bio-fuels are attracting more global attention today than ever before. This is mainly
due to the fact that bio-fuels have significant potential for reducing GHG emissions,
and are potential substitute to fossil fuels. They are also inexpensive source of energy,
Bio-fuels Global production (billion litres) (%) growth
2007 2008 2009
Bio-ethanol 50 69 76 52
Bio-diesel 10 15 17 70
Total bio-fuels 60 84 93 55
Source: Wikipedia (2011b)
Global bio-fuel production,